Abstract

Acute acoustic trauma (AAT) results in oxidative stress to the cochlea through overproduction of cellular reactive oxygen, nitrogen, and other free radical species appearing from 1 h to 10 days after noise exposure. It has been shown that N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a glutathione prodrug, and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR), a mitochondrial biogenesis agent, are effective in reducing noise-induced hearing loss. Phenyl N-tertbutylnitrone (PBN), a nitrone-based free radical trap, appears to suppress oxidative stress in a variety of disorders and several biological models. In this study, we tested whether 4-hydroxy PBN (4-OHPBN), a major metabolite of PBN, administered 4 h after noise exposure is effective in treating noise-induced hearing loss and whether a combination of antioxidant drugs (4-OHPBN plus NAC and 4-OHPBN plus NAC plus ALCAR) provides greater efficacy in attenuating AAT since each agent addresses different injury mechanisms. Chinchilla were exposed to a 105 dB octave-band noise centered at 4 kHz for 6 h. 4-OHPBN and combinations of antioxidant drugs were intraperitoneally administered beginning 4 h after noise exposure. Hearing threshold shifts in auditory brainstem responses and missing outer hair cell counts were obtained. 4-OHPBN reduced threshold shifts in a dose-dependent manner while both drug combinations showed greater effects. These results demonstrate that 4-OHPBN and combinations of antioxidants can effectively treat acute acoustic trauma and drug combinations may increase the effectiveness of treatment and decrease the required individual medication dose.